Saturday, August 25, 2012

Chapter 1: The purpose of Business Activity


The economics problem: needs and wants.

Basically, all humans have needs and wants. Needs are things we can't live without, while wants are simply our desires that we can live without. We all have unlimited wants, which is true, since all of us want a new PC, a car, new graphics card, etc. that we actually do not need to live. Businesses produce goods and services to satisfy needs and wants.

Although we have unlimited wants, there are not enough resources for everyone. Resources can be split into 4 factors of production, which are:

- Land: All natural resources used to make a product or service.
- Labour: The effort of workers required to make a product or service.
- Capital: Finance, machinery and equipment required to make a product or service.
- Enterprise: Skill and risk-taking ability of the entrepreneur.

Entrepreneurs are people who combine these factors of production to make a product.

With these discussed, lets move on to the economic problem. The economic problem results from limited resources and unlimited wants. This situation causes scarcity, when there are not enough goods to satisfy the wants for everybody. Because of this, we will have to choose which wants we will satisfy (that will be of more benefit to us) and which we will not when buying things. For any choice, you will have to would have obtained if you didn't spend that money. For example, you would have got a book if you didn't buy the pen, or you would have a burger if you didn't buy the chips. Basically, item that you didn't buy is the opportunity cost. Make sure that the opportunity cost isn't higher than what you bought!


"Opportunity cost: the next best alternative given up by choosing another item."
Here is a diagram showing the whole economic problem:


Division of labour/Specialisation

Because there are limited resources, we need to use them the most efficient way possible. Therefore, we now use production methods that are as fast as possible and as efficient (costs less, earns more) as possible. The main production method that we are using nowadays is known as specialization, or division of labour.


"Division of Labour/Specialisation is when the production process is split up into different tasks and each specialized worker/ machine performs one of these tasks."

Pros:
  • Specialized workers are good at one task and increases efficiency and output.
  • Less time is wasted switching jobs by the individual.
  • Machinery also helps all jobs and can be operated 24/7.
Cons
  • Boredom from doing the same job lowers efficiency.
  • No flexibility because workers can only do one job and cannot do others well if needed.
  • If one worker is absent and no-one can replace him, the production process stops.
Why is business activity needed? (summary)
- Provides goods and services from limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants.
- Scarcity results from limited resources and unlimited wants.
- Choice is necessary for scarce resources. This leads to opportunity costs.
- Specialisation is required to make the most out of resources.

Business activity:
  1. Combine factors of production to create goods and services.
  2. Goods and services satisfy peoples wants.
  3. Employs people and pays them wages so they can consume other products.

Business Objectives:
All businesses have aims or objectives to achieve. Their aims can vary depending on their type of business or these can change depending on situations. The most common objectives are:
  1. Profit: Profit is what keeps a company going and is the main aim of most businesses. Normally a business will try to obtain a satisfactory level of profits so they do not have to work long hours or pay too much tax.
  2. Increase added value: Value added is the difference between the price and material costs of a product. E.g. If the price when selling a pen is $3 and it costs $1 in material, the value added would be $2. However, this does not take into account overheads and taxes. Added value could be increased by working on products so that they become more expensive finished products. One easy example of this is a mobile phone with a camera would sell for much more than one without it. Of course, you will need to pay for the extra camera but as long as prices rise more than costs, you get more profit.
  3. Growth: Growth can only be achieved when customers are satisfied with a business. When businesses grow they create more jobs and make them more secure when a business is larger. The status and salary of managers are increased. Growth also means that a business is able to spread risks by moving to other markets, or it is gaining a larger market share. Bigger businesses also gain cost advantages, called economies of scale.
  4. Survival: If a business do not survive, its owners lose everything. Therefore, businesses need to focus on this objective the most when they are: starting up, competing with other businesses, or in an economic recession.
  5. Service to the community: This is the primary goal for most government owned businesses. They plan to produce essential products to everybody who need them.
These business objectives can conflict because different people in a business want different things at different times.

Stakeholders:
Stakeholders are a person or a group which has interest in a business for various reasons and will be directly affected by its decisions. Stakeholders also have different objectives and these also conflict over time.

There are two 6 types of stakeholders, and these types can be classified into two groups with similar interests.

Group 1: Profit/Money
  • Owners:
  1. Profit, return on capital.
  2. Growth, increase in value of business.
  • Workers
  1. High salaries.
  2. Job security.
  3. Job satisfaction.
  • Managers
  1. High salaries.
  2. Job security.
  3. Growth of business so they get more power, status, and salary.
Group 2: Value
  • Customers
  1. Safe products.
  2. High quality.
  3. Value for money.
  4. Reliability of service and maintenance.
  • Government
  1. Employment.
  2. Taxes.
  3. National output/GDP increase.
  • Community
  1. Employment.
  2. Security.
  3. Business does not pollute the environment.
  4. Safe products that are socially responsible.
So... That's the first chapter guys. I realised that doing summaries in this format takes so much time, so the next chapter I will do it more in note form, making this less of a study guide but a revision guide or summary. Chapter two coming out soon!
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

188 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. How dare you insult him?! He is better than u! He is helping people! You must be ashamed!!!

      Delete
    2. Chup kar chutiye.

      Delete
    3. Abdullah Shirajee MAADER BITCH!!!!

      Delete
    4. Abdullah Shirajee BEEEHEEEEN CHOOT

      Delete
    5. You retards do realize that Abdullah Shirajee was praising these notes right?!

      Delete
    6. We would like to ask you if you would apply on our forms and allow us to use your notes for a new page on the website "xtremepapers.com".

      Delete
    7. well done guys.... u guys r proving k ap log parey likhey jahil ho... keep up da good work -_-

      Delete
    8. ^anon you do realize that your spellings make you look like the unpad here :P

      Delete
    9. Why were you people abusing me? What I did?

      Delete
    10. Oh god! Whoever abused Abdullah Shirajee are jobless retards. You should realise that he was appreciating the notes.

      Delete
    11. Are these notes useful?

      Delete
    12. Shut up gay faggots

      Delete
    13. masha Allah, why are you guys trying to insult abdullah shirajee? he is just being nice

      Delete
    14. what the fuck are you fags complaining about, someone spent their time to get this shit together for your sorry ass

      Delete
    15. yaakhi shut up all of you

      Delete
    16. FOR YOUR REQUIRED QUICK AFFORDABLE LOAN, EMAIL calvinloancompany@yahoo.com

      Hello, I am Cathrin Adams, currently living in New jersey city, USA. I am a widow at the moment with two kids and i was stuck in a financial situation in June 2015 and i needed to refinance and pay my bills. I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success, and most banks declined my credit. But as God would have it, I was introduced to a Man of God a private loan lender who gave me a loan of $105,000USD and today am a business owner and my kids are doing well at the moment, if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan without collateral , no credit check, no co signer with just 2% interest rate and better repayment plans and schedule, please contact Mr Calvin Scott. He doesn’t know that am doing this but am so happy now and i decided to let people know more about him and also i want God to bless him more.You can contact him through his email: (calvinloancompany@yahoo.com) Or http://calvinfinancialloanhome.bravesites.com/loan-applications

      Delete
    17. FOR YOUR REQUIRED QUICK AFFORDABLE LOAN, EMAIL calvinloancompany@yahoo.com

      Hello, I am Cathrin Adams, currently living in New jersey city, USA. I am a widow at the moment with two kids and i was stuck in a financial situation in June 2015 and i needed to refinance and pay my bills. I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success, and most banks declined my credit. But as God would have it, I was introduced to a Man of God a private loan lender who gave me a loan of $105,000USD and today am a business owner and my kids are doing well at the moment, if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan without collateral , no credit check, no co signer with just 2% interest rate and better repayment plans and schedule, please contact Mr Calvin Scott. He doesn’t know that am doing this but am so happy now and i decided to let people know more about him and also i want God to bless him more.You can contact him through his email: (calvinloancompany@yahoo.com) Or http://calvinfinancialloanhome.bravesites.com/loan-applications

      Delete
    18. Hello everyone,

      My name is Courtney Bieneman and am talking as the happiest person in the whole wide world today and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will tell the name to the whole wild world and i am so happy to say that my family is back for good because i was in need of $186,000.00 USD loan to start my life all over as i am a single mum with 2 kids and the whole world seemed like it was hanging on me until i met this GOD sent loan lender that changed my life and that of my family, a GOD fearing lender, Mr Mason Diego, he was the Savior GOD sent to rescue my family and at first i thought it was not going to be possible until i received my loan of $186,000.00 USD from him; so am advising anyone of you genuinely in need of loan to contact Mr. Mason Diego via email: ( diegoloancompany@yahoo.com ) or reach him through the company website: http://diegoloancompany.wix.com/loans for a quick and secure loan.

      Delete
    19. HOW I GOT MY LOAN FROM ELVIN LOAN COMPANY{elvinloancompany@yahoo.com}

      I am Carolyn V. Metnick,from Ohio USA, i want to use this great medium to announce this lender Elvin Morrison who is really a God sent to my family. few months back i was in search of a loan from the internet where i was scammed of $3250.00, i never thought i will ever apply for a loan on the internet again before i met a post about this lender made by one Maury who also got a loan from them, then i took a try again, after loan processing i was ask to provide my banking details which i did and to my greatest surprise i was granted a loan of $45,000.00 at first i thought it was a joke until i got to the bank to confirm and it was true, i was overwhelmed with joy. so i want you all who desire a loan and are capable of paying back the funds at the due time to contact: elvinloancompany@yahoo.com or on page http://elvinloancompanys.bravesites.com or Tel:+13072132540 and be a partaker of my testimony ....

      Delete
    20. $$$ URGENT LOAN OFFER WITH LOW INTEREST RATE APPLY NOW $$$
      Do you need Loan to pay off your debt and start a new life? You have come to the right place were you can get FUNDED at a very low interest rate. Interested people/company should please contact us via email for more details.

      Full name:
      Date of birth (yyyy-mm-dd):
      Gender:
      Marital status:
      Amount Needed:
      Duration:
      Address:
      City:
      State/province:
      Zip/postal code:
      Country:
      Phone number:
      Monthly Income:
      Occupation:

      E-mail: shadiraaliuloancompany1@gmail.com

      Delete
    21. REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE-STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL

      I am Dr. Bakare Tunde, the cousin of Nigerian Astronaut, Air Force Major Abacha Tunde. He was the first African in space when he made a secret flight to the Salyut 6 space station in 1979. He was on a later Soviet spaceflight, Soyuz T-16Z to the secret Soviet military space station Salyut 8T in 1989. He was stranded there in 1990 when the Soviet Union was dissolved. His other Soviet crew members returned to earth on the Soyuz T-16Z, but his place was taken up by return cargo. There have been occasional Progrez supply flights to keep him going since that time. He is in good humor, but wants to come home.
      The 14-years since he has been on the station, he has accumulated flight pay and interest amounting to almost $ 15,000,000 American Dollars. This is held in a trust at the Lagos National Savings and Trust Association. If we can obtain access to this money, we can place a down payment with the Russian Space Authorities for a Soyuz return flight to bring him back to Earth. I am told this will cost $ 3,000,000 American Dollars. In order to access the his trust fund we need your assistance.

      Consequently, my colleagues and I are willing to transfer the total amount to your account or subsequent disbursement, since we as civil servants are prohibited by the Code of Conduct Bureau (Civil Service Laws) from opening and/ or operating foreign accounts in our names.

      Needless to say, the trust reposed on you at this juncture is enormous. In return, we have agreed to offer you 20 percent of the transferred sum, while 10 percent shall be set aside for incidental expenses (internal and external) between the parties in the course of the transaction. You will be mandated to remit the balance 70 percent to other accounts in due course.

      Delete
  2. are these notes related to past paper answers

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. fuck you guys who was abusing others

      Delete
    2. fuck you guys who was abusing others

      Delete
  3. there is a book with the same notes right

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yeah, its the exact stuff from IGCSE Business Studies Third Edition.

      Delete
    2. TESTIMONY ON HOW I WAS RESCUED BY A GOD-SENT LENDER..

      Hello everyone, am writing this Testimony because am really grateful for what Mason Diego did for me and my family, when I thought there was no hope he came and make my family feel alive again by lending us loan at a very low interest rate of 2%. Well I have been searching for a loan to settle my debts for the past three months all I met scammed and took my money until I finally met a God sent Lender. I never thought that there are still genuine loan lenders on the internet but to my greatest surprise i got my loan without wasting much time so if you are out there looking for a loan of any amount i would advise you to email Mr Diego via: { diegoloancompany@yahoo.com } and be free of internet scams. thanks... Kathie Roper from California, USA.

      Delete
    3. REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE-STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL

      I am Dr. Bakare Tunde, the cousin of Nigerian Astronaut, Air Force Major Abacha Tunde. He was the first African in space when he made a secret flight to the Salyut 6 space station in 1979. He was on a later Soviet spaceflight, Soyuz T-16Z to the secret Soviet military space station Salyut 8T in 1989. He was stranded there in 1990 when the Soviet Union was dissolved. His other Soviet crew members returned to earth on the Soyuz T-16Z, but his place was taken up by return cargo. There have been occasional Progrez supply flights to keep him going since that time. He is in good humor, but wants to come home.


      In the 14-years since he has been on the station, he has accumulated flight pay and interest amounting to almost $ 15,000,000 American Dollars. This is held in a trust at the Lagos National Savings and Trust Association. If we can obtain access to this money, we can place a down payment with the Russian Space Authorities for a Soyuz return flight to bring him back to Earth. I am told this will cost $ 3,000,000 American Dollars. In order to access the his trust fund we need your assistance.

      Consequently, my colleagues and I are willing to transfer the total amount to your account or subsequent disbursement, since we as civil servants are prohibited by the Code of Conduct Bureau (Civil Service Laws) from opening and/ or operating foreign accounts in our names.

      Needless to say, the trust reposed on you at this juncture is enormous. In return, we have agreed to offer you 20 percent of the transferred sum, while 10 percent shall be set aside for incidental expenses (internal and external) between the parties in the course of the transaction. You will be mandated to remit the balance 70 percent to other accounts in due course.

      Delete
  4. I have my exam tommorow and this was really helpful... thnx

    ReplyDelete
  5. Precise and to the point! Just the way they expect our answers in igcse... Thank youu! Very helpful it is :)

    ReplyDelete
  6. thank you sooo much! really helpful! please keep the work up:) i have an exam, and i used your notes and i got full marks:)can you please give me your number or facebook incase i want to contact you:) <3 xx

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. thank you:) what is your name?

      Delete
    2. thanks soooo much my exams are in 7 days and this was very helpful

      Delete
    3. AMAZING NOTES UR BRILLIANT <3 U just made my life so much easier to study for my exams. Thnx so much Infinity Love... <3333333333333333333333

      Delete
    4. THE URDU COMMENTS HAHAHA LMAO

      Delete
    5. This blog is good but they have just copied the whole book - Revision guide. Anyways I found the useful revision content for igcse/ a levels etc on the blog www.downloadandstudy.blogspot.com . They keep on adding new stuff and the best part is each and every stuff available on this blog is detailed solved. Helped me a lot.

      Delete
  7. This site is amazing! thank you very much for the help!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  8. I have my boards comming up and this was really helpful.......thanks!!

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thanks a lot it really help me a lots. Do you have other chapters also?

    ReplyDelete
  10. rest chapter ki kab tak aye gi ineed it its helpful?

    ReplyDelete
  11. Pal, can you please give me your number ? Where are you from man ?

    Dude this site really helped bro ! Thanks a lot for putting in your crucial time in doing these notes for IGCSE Business Studies ! I have my boards coming up on May 8th, 2012. I just gave my IGCSE Mock Exams !

    Really helped !

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. i have my mock tomorrow, could you tell me some questions that you got please?

      Delete
    2. Which variant!?
      i got mine on 8th may too :D

      Delete
  12. You can find them all here:
    http://www.xtremepapers.com/CIE/index.php?dir=Cambridge%20IGCSE/0450%20-%20Business%20Studies/

    ReplyDelete
  13. where is chapter 2???

    ReplyDelete
  14. Are there any more blogs that u have created for other subjects, like math and , all the three sciences?????
    And thank you for the BS blog, it was really helpful!!!!! :D,cause I have my boards coming up.

    ReplyDelete
  15. hey thnk man helped alot
    keep up the good work

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hey helped alot
    Did you use your igcse text book?

    ReplyDelete
  17. This is great!
    Have my finals in 2 weeks, this is really gonna help me a lot!
    Peace.

    ReplyDelete
  18. THANK yOUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

    Sir there are question in Chapter. Can you post solution of Questions


    Thank Youuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu

    ReplyDelete
  19. Sir give me your opinion about this question

    Purbeck plc owns and manages a major leisure complex. The directors of
    the company are considering demolishing the complex and building a new
    shopping centre. The directors have different opinions about this plan.
    The Human Resource Manager says that too many groups of people would suffer from the plan. He thinks that the plan should be dropped.
    The Chief Executive says that his main responsibility is to the owners of the business and that profits should come first.
    a) How would the workers in the leisure centre be affected by
    the decision?
    b) Do you agree with the Chief Executive that profits should be the main aim of the business? Explain your answer.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Its really simple dude, think of it in a logical way, cause Business Studies is about 75% logic.
      Put yourself in the place of the workers, what is a leisure centre, what kind of workers are employed there (e.g any specially skilled workers required?) and compare and contrast it to working in a shopping centre.
      For part B, discuss why profit is important to a business, (business aims) and also other aims that a business might have, and compare its importance to profit.
      Hope this helped, :)

      Delete
    2. All the anwswers for the questions are in the back of the textbook.

      Delete
  20. thnxxx aloooott this has helped me alot xD

    ReplyDelete
  21. what are the two factors they should take into account when deciding from which farms to buy the food

    ReplyDelete
  22. Thanks a lot, I really understand this chapter well!!!!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  23. i,m confused with my business study test

    ReplyDelete
  24. the notes are realy helpful

    ReplyDelete
  25. WHERE I CAN GET CHAPTER WISE QUESTIONS???? PLZ HELP

    ReplyDelete
  26. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Tomorrow is my exam and you really helped me
    THANX!!

    ReplyDelete
  28. "Make sure that the opportunity cost isn't higher than what you bought!".... Why?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. go to free past papers.com they have business past paper questions.

      Delete
    2. Pls put up igcse economics revision notes too...thanks!

      Delete
  29. Otherwise you wouldn't have made the best choice :)

    ReplyDelete



  30. Great thoughts you got there, believe I may possibly try just some of it throughout my daily life.







    How to Register a Business

    ReplyDelete
  31. hello

    I really like your notes for the first chapter in business studies for o level. They are simple and direct to the point. It really satisfies the need of the students and very clear to understand. So hope to see the second chapter very very soon
    Very nice of you.

    ReplyDelete
  32. This is a great blog! Very helpful for both students and teachers. Thank you very much :) And keep up the good work!

    ReplyDelete
  33. Thanks you soooo much bro i really appreciate this i lost my business studies text book and i would hv been screwed if it wasnt for this!!!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bro? Is he our brother! That is very great, you are lucky but why you needing to look at this you can ask him to teach you privately itself!

      Also, it is very bad that you carelessly lost your business text and how could you be screwed unless you are a nail????

      Delete
    2. To ^
      just cuz u call someone bro doesnt really hv to mean that he is your brother for real!! -_-

      Delete
    3. hey prithvi boggavaram. the rockstar of GIIS east coast. how are you doing in GIIS queenstown man?

      Delete
  34. Less supply but so much demand, I think this is the real problem of our economy. With this variables, we can't make a healthy cycle.

    ReplyDelete
  35. THANKS you are the best!

    ReplyDelete
  36. Can I study from this only ?! Does it provide the whole information ?!

    ReplyDelete
  37. Support from a Hong Kong IGCSE student!

    I can tell you really want to help others out :) That's really good!!

    ReplyDelete
  38. i love your notes very helpful and easy to understand you make life easy and keep up the good work yah.

    ReplyDelete
  39. THANK U SO MUCH, THIS IS MUCH EASIER TO UNDERSTAND, BEST NOTES EVER

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yeah, its all from the book IGCSE Business Studies Third Edition

      Delete
  40. Hey, nice site you have here! Keep up the excellent work!

    Reconciliation Business

    ReplyDelete
  41. We proudly present the largest online database of CIE O Level academic contents in Pakistan e.g IGCSE Past Papers. We move with the aim to make education FAST, COMMON, & EASILY accessible for each and every Pakistani and others. People who are seeking knowledge and looking around for a better CIE O Level educational material and guidance system to enhance their academic skills may now connect to CIE O Level Taleem-e-Pakistan.com platform. It is developed to digitize the paper based academic learning material to allow easy E-access for all sort of IGCSE Past Papers, IGCSE Solved Assignments, IGCSE Syllabus, IGCSE Thesis, IGCSE Guess Papers, IGCSE Notes and regular updates just for free. We initiate with the hope of better educated Pakistan join us to us to make it possible.

    ReplyDelete
  42. Thanks a lot bro. i have book just want some directions i cant find a tutor i live in such an area that i don't have good tutors the tutor themselves study and come daily. Thanks!

    ReplyDelete
  43. thank u for the notes it really helped keep up the goo work thank u once again

    ReplyDelete
  44. better than my teacher hahahaha
    be my teacher at batam indonesia's internation cambridge igcse school contact me so that i can help tell the school lol
    christopher.6sgia@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  45. thanks a lot dude

    ReplyDelete
  46. Thank you so much for this =)

    ReplyDelete
  47. This is just the best. I recommend this for anyone having problems with business studies. Thank you sooooooooooooo much!

    ReplyDelete
  48. will i be able to pass of i study all the chapters from this blog?

    ReplyDelete
  49. omgg! ur notes are amazingg <33333 thankyouuu so muchh XX

    ReplyDelete
  50. uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuulalalalalalala fucking awsome shitttttttttttt............ i am glad so i can spit on the fire :) :):):):):):):):):). if you know what i did there :P

    ReplyDelete
  51. i wannna saackkkkkk your 3===================0

    ReplyDelete
  52. AS FOR ME I MA TRYING JUST NOW TO JUMP INTO THE WORLD OF IGCSE I HAVE MUCH INTEREST IN BUSINESS. SO YOUR SUMMARY REALLY PAY ME A GOOD HELP . :)
    CAN I ASK I ONE ? ARE THOSE HELPFUL TO IGCSE EXAM ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes, you stupid little piece of shit.

      Delete
  53. THAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAANKS SPITFIRE

    ReplyDelete
  54. It really helped me,thank u very much sir. Cause this is their i don't want to make short notes :). Anyway our school teacher is also using the same notes of u sir. Once again i would like to tell thank u sooo... much

    ReplyDelete
  55. it was very usefull

    ReplyDelete
  56. this is amazing... :) does any one know where i could get accounting notes from ??? :)

    ReplyDelete
  57. office space for rent in Bangalore Fully furnished and Commercial unfurnished(warm,bare shell) office space for rent in Bangalore all areas with car and bike parking, conference room, reception, cabin, pantry and power backup

    ReplyDelete
  58. Yes i agree that business is all about need and want & in today's era the best option to grow your business is to create Mobile apps for it.

    ReplyDelete
  59. Oh man. Yes thank you. I have my finals tomorrow and did not start studying. I hops i can get a D by studying from just this

    ReplyDelete
  60. This really good :) it helps me to complete my assignments.... thank uh:)

    ReplyDelete
  61. You are my lifesaver, thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  62. thank you soooo much this format is ease to understand and helpful hope to pass my exam .

    ReplyDelete
  63. I am not a professional so please feel free to add comments and suggestions on how I should improve.Startup consulting

    ReplyDelete
  64. thank you so much spitfire!! these are really gud notes and are really helpful for me!!
    thnks and keep up the gud work dude!

    ReplyDelete
  65. Can anyone tell me that these are useful or not?

    ReplyDelete
  66. Helpful article very informative and useful article likely business directory activity.

    Thank you..

    ReplyDelete
  67. Thank u whoever did this! U help me sosososososo much

    ReplyDelete
  68. what is this crap, so useless
    go home mate

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. If you find this useless then you better die because nothing can be more useful than this

      Delete
  69. fuck dis shit and kosomak ya 5awal this shit is useless really.... one more thing..... go get a fucking life u asshole

    ReplyDelete
  70. I found the useful revision content for igcse/ a levels etc on the blog www.downloadandstudy.blogspot.com . They keep on adding new stuff and the best part is each and every stuff available on this blog is detailed solved. Helped me a lot during my tests and exams.

    ReplyDelete
  71. The business activity is always important it is because the bright individuals are so focused on yesterday's and today's problems and challenges. This focus has kept them away from the purpose of business.

    http://tinyurl.com/2a031b0149d60a2b6fca067d5afdd11b

    ReplyDelete
  72. woao. this is coo; www.eshopori.com

    ReplyDelete
  73. The blog posted is very interesting from all aspects and it will surely benefit the readers by all means.
    IGCSE Physics Tuitions | IB Higher Level Physics

    ReplyDelete
  74. thanks a lot :)

    ReplyDelete

  75. Incredible post, you provide unique information in your blog.

    ReplyDelete
  76. Economic problems are always the main consideration in doing business it is the source of your market. Before going thru with your business plan consider get a professional advice about the business you getting to.
    business lawyer denver

    ReplyDelete
  77. spread your business online, For more information click mention below.
    ppc for tech support
    ppc expert for tech support

    ReplyDelete
  78. Do you need Personal Loan?
    Business Cash Loan?
    Unsecured Loan
    Fast and Simple Loan?
    Quick Application Process?
    Approvals within 24-72 Hours?
    No Hidden Fees Loan?
    Funding in less than 1 Week?
    Get unsecured working capital?
    Contact Us At :majidvijahlending@gmail.com

    LOAN SERVICES AVAILABLE INCLUDE:
    ================================
    *Commercial Loans.
    *Personal Loans.
    *Business Loans.
    *Investments Loans.
    *Development Loans.
    *Acquisition Loans .
    *Construction loans.
    *Business Loans And many More:

    LOAN APPLICATION FORM:
    =================
    Full Name:................
    Loan Amount Needed:.
    Purpose of loan:.......
    Loan Duration:..
    Gender:.............
    Marital status:....
    Location:..........
    Home Address:..
    City:............
    Country:......
    Phone:..........
    Mobile / Cell:....
    Occupation:......
    Monthly Income:....

    Contact Us At :majidvijahlending@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  79. colombian girls-A step by step guide on how to fuck Colombian girls. I go into my process on how I was able to have different Colombian women every night. My pics are NSFW.

    ReplyDelete
  80. The economic activity of a society consists of activities related to the production and consumption of goods and services. Since earliest times, the primary function of organized society has been economic in nature.

    ReplyDelete
  81. After reading these notes, i wanted the past papers and i got a good site. thought to share it with you guys .
    go and get your past papers from here http://aolpapers.com

    ReplyDelete
  82. TESTIMONY ON HOW I WAS RESCUED BY A GOD-SENT LENDER..

    Hello everyone, am writing this Testimony because am really grateful for what Mason Diego did for me and my family, when I thought there was no hope he came and make my family feel alive again by lending us loan at a very low interest rate of 2%. Well I have been searching for a loan to settle my debts for the past three months all I met scammed and took my money until I finally met a God sent Lender. I never thought that there are still genuine loan lenders on the internet but to my greatest surprise i got my loan without wasting much time so if you are out there looking for a loan of any amount i would advise you to email Mr Diego via: { diegoloancompany@yahoo.com } and be free of internet scams. thanks... Kathie Roper from California, USA.

    ReplyDelete
  83. Do you need Personal Loan?
    Business Cash Loan?
    Unsecured Loan
    Fast and Simple Loan?
    Quick Application Process?
    Approvals within 24-72 Hours?
    No Hidden Fees Loan?
    Funding in less than 1 Week?
    Get unsecured working capital?
    Contact Us At :majidvijahlending@gmail.com


    LOAN SERVICES AVAILABLE INCLUDE:
    ================================
    *Commercial Loans.
    *Personal Loans.
    *Business Loans.
    *Investments Loans.
    *Development Loans.
    *Acquisition Loans .
    *Construction loans.
    *Business Loans And many More:

    LOAN APPLICATION FORM:
    =================
    Full Name:................
    Loan Amount Needed:.
    Purpose of loan:.......
    Loan Duration:..
    Gender:.............
    Marital status:....
    Location:..........
    Home Address:..
    City:............
    Country:......
    Phone:..........
    Mobile / Cell:....
    Occupation:......
    Monthly Income:....

    Contact Us At :majidvijahlending@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  84. Wow. Never read something so neatly organised and lucidly written. Thanks!!

    Insurance Brokers Australia

    ReplyDelete
  85. Hello everyone,

    My name is Courtney Bieneman and am talking as the happiest person in the whole wide world today and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will tell the name to the whole wild world and i am so happy to say that my family is back for good because i was in need of $186,000.00 USD loan to start my life all over as i am a single mum with 2 kids and the whole world seemed like it was hanging on me until i met this GOD sent loan lender that changed my life and that of my family, a GOD fearing lender, Mr Mason Diego, he was the Savior GOD sent to rescue my family and at first i thought it was not going to be possible until i received my loan of $186,000.00 USD from him; so am advising anyone of you genuinely in need of loan to contact Mr. Mason Diego via email: ( diegoloancompany@yahoo.com ) or reach him through the company website: http://diegoloancompany.wix.com/loans for a quick and secure loan.

    ReplyDelete
  86. FREE $100 Forex NO deposit BONUS. Start Trading
    Trading FOREX and GOLD
    Profit may withdraw without restrictions !

    ReplyDelete
  87. Thank you for taking the time to publish this information very useful! I've been looking for books of this nature for a way too long. I'm just glad that I found yours. Looking forward for your next post. Thanks :)

    Distance Education Institute in Gurgaon

    ReplyDelete
  88. philippine girls-My observations on banging Filipino girls. Learn how to date Filipino girls in the Philippines: how to meet them, how to get them in bed, and more.

    ReplyDelete
  89. For any choice, you will have to would have obtained if you didn't spend that money. For example, you would have got a book if you didn't buy the pen, or you would have a burger if you didn't buy the chips. Basically, item that you didn't buy is the opportunity cost.
    Michael Ringrose

    ReplyDelete
  90. thnx guys. really helpful and easy to understand compared to workbooks. having a test tomorrow on this chapter and i couldn't understand anything until i came to this website. and again thnx soooooooooooooooooooooooooo mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccchhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :)

    ReplyDelete
  91. Well done. I could use these to teach my students. (Y)

    ReplyDelete
  92. The gorgeous post learned a great deal Thanks greatly!


    medical equipment leasing companies

    ReplyDelete
  93. I always love informational post which helps us to increase our knowledge. Here found new post which is best for me.

    ReplyDelete
  94. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  95. hey , this will help me for the boards ? 2015

    ReplyDelete
  96. Much thanks to you for setting aside an ideal opportunity to distribute this data exceptionally valuable! I've been searching for books of this nature for a really long time. I'm simply happy that I discovered yours.Necessities are things I can't survive without, while needs are just our goals that I can live without. All have boundless needs, which is valid, since every one of us need another PC, an auto, new illustrations card, and so on that we really don't have to live. Organizations produce products and administrations to fulfill needs and wants.For any decision, you will need to would have acquired in the event that you didn't spend that cash. For instance, you would have a book on the off chance that you didn't purchase the pen, or you would have a burger on the off chance that you didn't purchase the chips. Essentially, thing that you didn't purchase is the open door cost. Ensure that the open door expense isn't higher than what you purchased.

    ReplyDelete
  97. TTAAAAAAAAAAAAANNNNNKKKKKKK YYYOOOUUUUUU SOOOOOOOOOOO FREEEEEAAAAAKINGGGGG MUCCCCCHHH :D thank you thank you thank you !!!!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  98. Thanks for taking the time to discuss that, I really feel strongly about it and love learning more on that topic. If achievable, as you gain competence, would you mind updating your blog with more information? It is highly helpful for me.
    Zero Calorie Fundraisers

    ReplyDelete
  99. colombian girls-A step by step guide on how to fuck Colombian girls. I go into my process on how I was able to have different Colombian women every night. My pics are NSFW.

    ReplyDelete
  100. Nice Website...
    Hey JOIN now fblikesbot.com and Increase Facebook Likes your profile and websites.
    Increase Facebook Likes and check your website worth worth my websites
    FB Likes and check your website worth Website Value Calculator
    Hot Wallpapers
    its may be very beneficial for you also really

    ReplyDelete
  101. Hi I really appreciate all the great content you have here. I am glad I cam across it!
    company setup in dubai

    ReplyDelete
  102. I have read many blogs in the net but have never come across such a well written blog. Good work keep it up
    market research

    ReplyDelete
  103. Merely awesome! I know you have actually put a whole lot of effort right into this and also I wanted to tell you exactly how happy I am! Hope you put out even more incredible stuff in the close to future and I will come back and read it!http://www.turkishtranslationoffice.com/de/

    ReplyDelete
  104. Thank for sharing your post. I will share some tips about forex.Forex, additionally referred to as currency mercantilism, may be a Brobdingnagian market, wherever you'll be able to build cash. it'll collectively be a volatile and confusing house, since it involves multiple nations around the world. scan on into this text for variety of concepts on the simplest way to benefit on international business while not feeling spun around yourself.To know more visit my website Hot forex Signals

    ReplyDelete
  105. indonesian girls-Indonesian girls are the most sexy and sensual girls of South East Asia. I will teach you how to seduce Indonesian girls with online game, daygame and more.

    ReplyDelete
  106. Thanks for the help. All these things are really helpful in taking good decision for your business. You can also take help from the free online ads sites so s to promote your business in a proper manner and get some really interesting result that can help you in having profit.

    ReplyDelete
  107. The blog article very surprised to me! Your writing is good. In this I learned a lot! Thank you!
    corporate adviser awards Middlesex

    ReplyDelete
  108. I am really very agree with your qualities it is very helpful for look like home. Thanks so much for info and keep it up.
    Grand Rapids

    ReplyDelete
  109. Silk Road Research is an independent market research firm USA focused on providing on-the-ground business intelligence in Emerging Asia.

    ReplyDelete
  110. $$$ URGENT LOAN OFFER WITH LOW INTEREST RATE APPLY NOW $$$
    Do you need Loan to pay off your debt and start a new life? You have come to the right place were you can get FUNDED at a very low interest rate. Interested people/company should please contact us via email for more details.

    Full name:
    Date of birth (yyyy-mm-dd):
    Gender:
    Marital status:
    Amount Needed:
    Duration:
    Address:
    City:
    State/province:
    Zip/postal code:
    Country:
    Phone number:
    Monthly Income:
    Occupation:

    E-mail: shadiraaliuloancompany1@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  111. So useful informations for students! Thanks! :)

    ReplyDelete
  112. Do not use all of these Private Money Lender here, there are not legitimate and if they have a free email account tag i.e. yahoo, gmail, hotmail, live etc then they are not legitimate. If they have telephone number with international dialing codes from Nigeria, India, UK, Singapore and France then you have to beware. A legitimate company would have a genuine website, personalized email address/account and based in the country they claim they are. I would recommend anyone looking a legitmate/trusted project and bsuienss loan lender to visit: WILLIAM BURKE LENDINGS LOCATED IN NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA as their reputation speaks louder than others in the industry when it come to obtaining all kinds of loans, mortgage, debt consolidation, debt financing, unsecured business loans, equipment loans, contruction loans, farm loans and Real Estate Loans. Their full website information and contact details are Tel No: +1 (646)-513-4428, Website: www.wburke-lendings.com or Email: finance@wburke-lendings.com located in New York City, New York. USA. Skype: wburke-lendings

    ReplyDelete
  113. Hi Good Afternoon
    Its really informative article which is never compare with other article.
    Business Brokers

    ReplyDelete
  114. Nama saya Mrs Omar Zainab, Saya seorang pemberi pinjaman uang pribadi yang terdaftar sah dalam memberikan pinjaman kepada individu, bisnis pria, wanita dan juga untuk perusahaan-perusahaan yang membutuhkan bantuan keuangan di Indonesia dan di seluruh dunia. Kami di sini untuk memberikan baik jangka panjang atau jangka pendek pinjaman, pribadi atau hipotek, pinjaman Anda dapat ditransfer melalui kertas kerja atau check Kami akan memberikan yang terbaik ketika Anda menghubungi perusahaan kami. Di bawah ini adalah email kontak kami
    (Zainabomarloanfirm@gmail.com) atau (omarzainabloanfirm@outlook.com)

    ReplyDelete
  115. Really an awesome post. I wondered by reading this blog post. Thanks a lot for posting this unique post which you have shared with us. Keep on posting like this exclusive post with us.

    Hadoop Training in Chennai

    ReplyDelete